Course Material “Creative Research”
by Maarten Lamers
Media Technology MSc program, Leiden University
The Media Technology MSc program recognizes creativity as an important factor in scientific innovation. This course combines an introduction into scientific research with the concept of creative research, a style of research that is highly valued by the program.
Principles, boundaries and organization of scientific research are presented, and through examples the concept of "creative research" is introduced. With that we mean actual scientific research that was brought about in unconventional or creative ways, in order to come to results that could otherwise not be envisioned or achieved. But also it covers unconventional or creative forms of scientific output.
Topics of the course are: principles of science, scientific boundaries, scientific freedom, organization of the scientific world, scientific publication and writing, the role of statistics in science, creative and unconventional research, asking the right questions, finding the right data, unconventional expressions of scientific results.
Lectures are combined with class discussions, intensive homework assignments, student presentations, a final project and paper. Attendance is compulsory.
Contact via firstname.lastname@example.org
|Location:||room 413, Snellius building|
|Schedule:||see the Media Technology calendar|
|Level, credits:||level 500 (scientifically oriented master course),
|Requirements:||- attendance in all classes (required)
- a good grasp of verbal and written English (required)
- active participation in class (required)
|Grading:||For a passing final grade,
(a) the overall grade must be 6 or higher, and
(b) all pass/fail assignments must be passed, and
(c) no more than one class may be skipped.
- various homework assignments (both graded and pass/fail)
- final project (proposal, presentation, paper)
(details on page below)
|Communication:||Media Technology Forum and Blackboard.|
|Literature:||no book, only web-available materials.|
|Homework:||Homework must be submitted via the course Blackboard page before class on the due date.|
|every lecture||Science news||-|
|Mon Sep 17||1||-||Science basics|
|Mon Sep 24||2||"Introducing science" &
|Science life & ethics|
|Mon Oct 1||3||"Peer review"||Publication, peer review|
|Mon Oct 8
|4||"Write abstract" (P/F)||Descriptive statistics|
|Mon Oct 15||5||"Review abstracts" (P/F)||Inferential statistics|
|Mon Oct 22||-||-||no class|
|Mon Oct 29||6||"7-Papers" (35%)||Statistics in context|
|Mon Nov 5||-||-||no class|
|Mon Nov 12||7||"7-Papers review"||7-Papers discussion|
|Mon Nov 19||8||"Introducing creative res"||Creative Research|
|Mon Nov 26||9||-||Questions & Data|
|Mon Dec 3||-||-||no class|
|Mon Dec 10
|Thu Dec 13
|-||Written project proposal (25%)||-|
|Mon Jan 7
|11||-||Project Question Time|
|Mon Jan 21
|Wed Jan 23
|-||Project paper deadline (40%)||-|
- Teacher introduction
- Course organization
- Most basic principles of science.
- A critical attitude.
- Scientific careers at a glance.
- Bachelors, masters, doctors, postdocs, and different types of professors.
- PhD theses, promotors and defense
- Science ethics, integrity and code of conduct.
- Being honest to yourself.
- Fraud and Diederick Stapel.
- Plagiarism, self-plagiarism and Mart Bax.
- Scientific articles.
- Peer-review process.
- Journals, conferences and proceedings.
- Call for Papers.
- Submission and acceptance process.
- Citations to your articles; citation indices.
- How to find articles.
- Skimming articles.
- Article structure and writing style.
- References and citations.
- Remember the Normal Distribution?
- Populations and samples
- Using Excel for statistics
- Descriptive statistics
- Shapiro-Wilk test
- Hypothesis testing
- Statistical testing
- Statistical significance and “p < 0,05”
- Student’s t-test
- Chi-squared test
- Correlation test
- Significance in context
- No-effect hypothesis
- The prosecutor’s fallacy
- Small probabilities
Suggested further reading:
- One in Millions, Billions, and Trillions by Jonathan J. Koehler (1997)
- How to Lie with Statistics by Darrell Huff (1954)
- Discuss results of 7-papers assignment.
- Q&A session about scientific writing.
- Dimensions of creative and unconventional research.
- Unconventional questions.
- Unconventional methods.
- Concrete, manageable, start-to-end projects.
- Understandable for everyone.
- Personal inspiration.
- Research examples.
- Discuss found examples of creative research
- Unconventional and creative forms of scientific output (if time permits)
- Unconventional and creative forms of scientific output (if required)
- About questions in general.
- Why?, how?, what is?, is it? and what if? questions.
- Ask yourself about any question:
- Can it be answered?
- How is the answer expressed?
- Can I find the answer?
- Generating your own data versus finding the right data.
- Introducing the project assignment.
- Students present proposals for research projects.
- Group discussion of the proposals.
- Acceptance of proposals by the lecturer.
Students present their research projects.
During the course, all students must regularly (at least weekly) read one source of science news. In class, students can be asked to comment on research about which they read in the past week. A record of student participation is kept. Example science news sources are
When asked to comment on scientific news in class, students must
- Keep their comment to within 1 minute
- Mention the source of the scientific news
- Briefly summarize the news
- Focus on scientific results, not on technological advancements or new gadgets
- Mention what makes it relevant
- Mention why you chose this particular news item
- Cargo Cult Science by Richard Feynman (1974)
- Feynman on Scientific Method, video of a lecture by Richard Feynman (1964).
- Advice to Young Scientists, video lecture by Edward O. Wilson (2012)
Recommended further reading:
- Part II (The Size of the Earth) of Bryson (2004)
- Chapters 2 (Science Culture) and 3 (The Scientific Life) of Doherty (2006)
- The Netherlands Code of Conduct for Scientific Practice, VSNU (2014).
- Flawed Science: The Fraudulent Research Practices of Social Psychologist Diederik Stapel, Levelt et al. (2012).
Recommended further reading/viewing:
- Circumventing Reality: Report on the Anthropological Work of Professor Emeritus M.M.G. Bax, Baud et al. (2013).
- Episode Over de Schreef (Aug 19 2016) of "Kijken in de Ziel" television series, NTR public television (in Dutch only).
- Peer Review: The nuts and bolts, published by the Sense About Science organization (2012). Skip pages 10 and 11 about the framework.
Choose one of the following articles, and write an abstract for it. An abstract is a brief summary of an article, and nearly all published articles start with one. It is important that the abstract gives insight into the main contribution of the article. You must not give your opinion of the article, but a summary in your own words, of 300 words max. Read the article carefully and choose what is important to mention in an abstract and what not. Write it as if you were the author (so do not use constructs as "The author studied..."). Naturally you can find the original abstracts on the web, but that is not the point.
Choose one of the below articles inside the reader:
- "An Experimental Study of the Small World Problem" by Jeffrey Travers & Stanley Milgram (1969)
- "Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices" by Harry McGurk and John McDonald (1976)
- "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors That Explain the Decline and Six That Do Not" by Steven D. Levitt (2004)
What to submit:
- A single-page A4 PDF document that contains the title of the article you chose and your abstract.
- Do not include your name on the single-page! It will be double-blind peer-reviewed.
Suggestion 1: if this is the first abstract that you write, then consider the following approach: (1) read the article, (2) let is sink in for a day, (3) read it again, highlighting key sentences, (4) paste the key sentences together, (5) rework the resulting text into your own words, (6) use approximately the allowed number of words.
Suggestion 2: if you are unsure what style to write it in, just read some abstracts of other articles. For example, on Google Scholar search for a topic of your interest, select some articles, read their abstracts.
You must review two abstracts from the above assignment. Go to the course Blackboard, under “Submit Assignments” you should find assignment “Peer-review Abstracts”.
This is an important assignment. Basically, it asks you to scope a scientific topic and write a compact scientific-style introduction about it.
Find a scientific topic that interests you. Gather exactly 7 published scientific papers that together form a good overview of this topic and read them. It is OK if you find 10 papers from the field, as long as it can be summarized by 7 of them.
Tips: make sure that your topic is not too large or too small. A large topic will give you way too many papers to select from, a small topic not enough. Typically, if nearly all the 7 references are of the same author, your topic is too small.
Write a 700-1000 word paper (in English) in which you describe the current state of this scientific topic, and use the 7 papers as references. Write in your own words, and in academic style, meaning that it should be readable sentences, not just bulleted items.
- give your work an appropriate and informative title (dare to be creative).
- have exactly 7 published scientific references.
- each of the 7 references must be cited in the text of your paper, for example like so "", or like "(Ren and Stimpy, 2015)".
- make sure that the references are correctly constructed (authors, title, source, year).
- order the list of references in a logical way (e.g. chronological, by author name, or by appearance in text)
- write in your own words only, do not copy-paste sentences from sources.
Copying text from other articles is not allowed; not even individual sentences!
- do not include an abstract.
- do not add a personal reflection, just summarize the field.
- do not include urls in references.
- do not submit the 7 articles that you use as references, only submit your own paper.
- your paper should not contain your name. Make sure it is anonymous.
Evaluation criteria include: Was topic too large/small? Was topic discussed completely? Appropriate length, title, writing style, structure, references?
- Pigeons in a Pelican by Skinner (1960)
- Introduction (The Hidden Side of Everything) and Chapter 1 (What Do Schoolteachers and Sumo Wrestlers Have in Common?) of Freakonomics (2005)
- 'Crackpot' science and hidden genius at physics meeting, BBC News Science & Environment, April 18 2013
In groups of 2 students:
- Find a published scientific (peer-reviewed) article (not popular science) that you consider an example of creative research.
- Write one page, in which you argue why you think this is creative research (What about the study makes it creative research? Is it creative or just funny? What about the question, method, and output; where is the creative aspect?). In your one-page, provide a full reference to the published article, not just a weblink. Don't forget to put both your names on the it, and submit it in PDF format.
- Include the full scientific article as PDF file in your submission.
- Prepare to verbally present your work in 3 minutes during the lecture.
Evaluation criteria include: Is it indeed an academic study and peer-reviewed source? Do you clearly state what you find creative about it? Does your argumentation make sense? Does your argumentation support your finding about what is creative about it? Is the provided references correct?
Form groups of 2 or 3 students. Devise and propose a research project that you can do before the project deadline. Your proposed research must be academically valid (it must aim to contribute knowledge and be rationally constructed), it must make sense, and you must be able to do it in the intended time frame.
Write a two-page description of your proposal. It should contain at least a research question, a short validation of why it is interesting, some context of related academic work, and the proposed method to answer it. Do not include an abstract. Give it a title also, and include your names. A logical structure for the written proposal would be:
What caused you to ask the question?
What is the research question?
Why is it interesting?
2. Related Work
A short academic context
3. Proposed Method
How will you answer the question?
If you use data, where will you get them, and
how will they lead to an answer?
just a few is enough
If you decide to collect data from volunteers/participants, then a minimum of 20 participants is required. Therefore, it is better to avoid this altogether.
Submit the written proposal in PDF format via Blackboard. Beware that the written proposal has its own deadline. On the proposal presentation data, present your proposal in maximally 3 minutes in class.
Evaluation criteria include: Is it indeed an academic study? Did you provide a reasonable validation for the research question? Is the research question logically answerable? Is the method optimally chosen (given the practical constraints) to answer the research question? Does it seems "doable" within the limited time frame? Quality and clarity of the written proposal and in-class presentation. Bonus: Is it inspiring/creative in its research question or method?
Final research project and paper
If your research proposal was accepted, carry out the research. If your proposal was not accepted, we may assign you one. The results of your research must be presented in 5-7 minutes during the presentations lecture. Mention the relevance, methods, results and conclusions.
Write a scientific-style paper about it of max 2500 words, containing title, authors, abstract, introduction, references, etcetera. If you want to, you can use the provided Word template file for this (or choose your own). The paper must be submitted in PDF format via the course's Blackboard by the stated submission deadline (see course schedule above).
Some of the online resources may only be available from the university network, due to copyright, licensing and subscription restrictions. Others may be available to participating students in the course vault.
|[Bargar & Duncan]||Robert R. Bargar and James K. Duncan (1982), Cultivating Creative Endeavor in Doctoral Research, The Journal of Higher Education, Vol 53(1), pp 1-31|
|[Baud]||Michiel Baud, Susan Legêne & Peter Pels (2013), Circumventing Reality: Report on the Anthropological Work of Professor Emeritus M.M.G. Bax, official English report by the committee investigating suspected scientific fraud committed by Mart Bax. Online publication, dated Sep 9 2013|
|[Biggs 2007]||Michael AR Biggs & Daniela Büchler (2007), Rigor and Practice-based Research, Design Issues, Vol 23(3), pp 62-69|
|[Biggs 2008]||Michael AR Biggs & Daniela Büchler (2008), Eight Criteria for Practice-based Research in the Creative and Cultural Industries. Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education, Vol 7(1), pp 5-18|
|[black names]||Roland G. Fryer Jr. & Steven D. Levitt (2004), The Causes and Consequences of Distinctively Black Names, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol 119(3), pp 767-805|
|[Bryson]||Bill Bryson (2004), A Short History of Nearly Everything, Broadway Publishing (amazon.com)|
|[Burdick]||Anne Burdick (2003), Design (as) Research, introduction of section two in Brenda Laurel (ed.), Design Research: Methods and Perspectives, MIT Press, p 82|
|[Cohen]||I.Bernard Cohen (2005), The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life, W.W. Norton & Company (amazon.com)|
Jason Palmer (2013), 'Crackpot' science and hidden genius at physics meeting, BBC News Science & Environment, April 18 2013
|[crocheting]||Hinke M. Osinga & Bernd Krauskopf (2004), Crocheting the Lorenz Manifold, The Mathematical Intelligencer Vol 26(4), pp 25-37|
|[dance]||Dans je promotieonderzoek (in Dutch), Trouw Newspaper, The Netherlands, 30 September 2010|
|[data leaks]||Leiden University's policy on preventing data leaks|
|[David & Sutton]||Matthew David and Carole D. Sutton (2010), Chapter 1 of Social Research: An Introduction (Second Edition), SAGE Publications|
|[dead salmon]||CM Bennett, AA Baird, MB Miller & GL Wolford (2009), Neural Correlates of Interspecies Perspective Taking in the Post-mortem Atlantic Salmon: An Argument for Multiple Comparisons Correction, NeuroImage Vol 47(sup 1), pp S125|
|[Diamond]||Jared Diamond (2002), Evolution, Consequences and Future of Plant and Animal Domestication, Nature Vol 418, 8 August 2002, pp 700-707|
|[Doherty]||Peter Doherty (2006), The Beginner's Guide to Winning the Nobel Prize, Columbia University Press|
|[drug finances]||+ Steven D. Levitt & Sudhir A. Venkatesh (2000), An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang's Finances, Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 2000, pp 755-789|
|+ Sudhir A. Venkatesh (2008), Gang Leader for a Day: A Rougue Sociologist Takes to the Streets, The Penguin Press|
|+ Sudhir A. Venkatesh, Gang Leader for a Day video introduction|
|[Feynman]||+ Wikipedia entry Richard P. Feynman, slightly mad genius and famous lecturer|
|+ Richard P. Feynman (1964), Feynman on Scientific Method, lecture by Richard Feynman at Cornell University, explaining the scientific method.|
|+ Richard P. Feynman (1974), Cargo Cult Science, Engineering and Science, June 1974, pp 10-13 (reprinted in Feynman 1999).|
|+ BBC Horizon & PBS Nova (1981), documentary The Pleasure of Finding Things Out: Richard Feynman|
|+ Richard P. Feynman (1999), The Pleasure of Finding Things Out, Perseus Books (amazon.com)|
|[Fisher]||Len Fisher (2004), Weighing the Soul: The Evolution of Scientific Beliefs, Phoenix Publishing (Google Books, amazon.com)|
|[Freakonomics]||+ Steven D. Levitt & Stephen J. Dubner (2005), Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything, HarperCollins Publishers|
|+ Wikipedia entry Steven Levitt, rogue economist|
|[Gettelfinger]||B. Gettelfinger & E.L. Cussler (2004), Will Humans Swim Faster or Slower in Syrup?, American Inst Chemical Engineers Journal, Vol 50(11), pp 2646-2647|
|[gorillas]||+ D.J. Simons & C.F. Chabris (1999), Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events, Perception, Vol 28, pp 1059-1074|
|+ The research video|
|[Huff]||Darrell Huff (1954), How to Lie with Statistics, W.W. Norton & Company Inc, ISBN 0-393-31072-8|
|[Koehler]||Jonathan J. Koehler (1997), One in Millions, Billions, and Trillions: Lessons from People v. Collins (1968) for People v. Simpson (1995), Journal of Legal Education, Vol 47(2), pp 214-223|
|[Levelt]||Committees Levelt, Noort and Drenth (2012), Flawed Science: The Fraudulent Research Practices of Social Psychologist Diederik Stapel, Joint report by three committees investigating the scientific fraud committed by Diederik Stapel, with foreword (in English and Dutch). Online publication, dated Nov 28 2012|
|[Levitt]||Steven D. Levitt (2004), Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not, Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol 18(1), 2004, pp 163-190|
|[Martin]||Bella Martin and Bruce Hanington (2012), Research Through Design, section 70 of Universal Methods of Design, Rockport Publishers, pp 332-333|
|[McCullough]||Gale McCullough citizen scientist (2010), video lecture, PopTech 2010 Conference|
|[McGurk]||Harry McGurk and John McDonald (1976), Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices, Nature Vol 264, pp 746-748|
|[NTR]||Episode Over de Schreef (Aug 19 2016) of "Kijken in de Ziel" by NTR Public Television (in Dutch)|
|[peer review]||Sense About Science organisation (2012), Peer review: The nuts and bolts (A guide for early career researchers), online source|
|[Rocco]||Roberto Rocco (2009), What's the Role of Design in Academic Research?, presentation for the course "Methodology for Urbanism", TU Delft|
|[Rosenhan]||+ D. Rosenhan (1973), On being sane in insane places, Science, Vol 179, pp 250-258|
|+ A good description of the Rosenhan experiments|
|+ Wikipedia entry the Rosenhan experiments|
|[seafood menus]||Glenn Jones (2005), Restaurant Seafood Prices Since 1850s Help Plot Marine Harvests Through History, Texas A&M University, research in progress|
|[Skinner]||B.F. Skinner (1960), Pigeons in a Pelican, American Psychologist, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp 28-37|
|[small world]||+ Jeffrey Travers & Stanley Milgram (1969), An Experimental Study of the Small World Problem, Sociometry, Vol 32(4), pp 425-443|
|+ Wikipedia entry Small World Phenomenon in which Milgram's "small world experiment" is described, and criticized.|
|[Spelke]||Elizabeth S. Spelke (1990), Principles of Object Perception, Cognitive Science Vol 14, 1990, pp 29-56|
|[tapeworms]||Biologist Mike Leahy grows tapeworms, inside himself. Invasion of the Bodysnatchers, BBC Television 26/11/2003|
|[Trinkaus]||Alice S. Kaswell (2003), Trinkaus: An Informal Look, Annals of Improbable Research, Vol 9(3), pp 4-15|
|[VSNU]||VSNU (2014), The Netherlands Code of Conduct for Academic Practice: Principles of good academic teaching and research, VSNU Association of Universities in the Netherlands (also available in Dutch)|
|[Warwick]||Website of Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics at the University of Reading, England|
|[Watson & Crick]||JD Watson & FHC Crick (1953), Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: a Structure for DNA, Nature Vol 171, pp 737-738|
|[whale falls]||Professor Craig Smith of the University of Hawaii sinks dead whales to study deep sea life|
|[Williamson]||Donald Williamson (2009), Caterpillars Evolved from Onychophorans by Hybridogenesis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(47), pp 19901-19905|
|[Wilson]||Edward O. Wilson (2012), Advice to Young Scientists, TED video lecture|
|[Wiseman]||Richard Wiseman (2007), A quirky look at our quirky species , New Scientist 2603, May 12 2007|
|[science writing]||Introduction to Journal-Style Scientific Writing, Bates College, 2002.|
|[science posters]||Lorrie Faith Cranor (2004), Research Posters 101, ACM Crossroads student magazine, Vol 3(2).|
|[graduate school]||Marie desJardins (2004), How to Succeed in Graduate School, ACM Crossroads student magazine, Part 1 (Vol 1 Issue 2), Part 2 (Vol 1 Issue 3).|
|[101 Problems]||Martin Cohen (2001), 101 Philosophy Problems, Routledge Publishers (amazon.com)|
|[edge.org]||Edge Foundation, www.edge.org|